Language:

Naturaldyestuff

CISTUS LAURIFOLIUS L.

 

Türkish: TAVSANAK

Common in West- and Middleanatolia

Material used for dying:
The whole aboveground plant, especially the adhesive leafs

Chemical dyestuffs:
Quercetin. Colors dyed: light yellow

WALLOON OAK - QUERCUS MACROLEPIS KOTSCHY

Türkish: PALAMUT MESESI

Grow in Western Anatolia.

Material used for dying:
the acorn cups of the Walloon oakand the gallnuts.

Chemical dyestuffs:
tannic acids, ellagic acid.

Colors dyed:
on a ferrous-ll-sulphate mordant, gray to black hues.

QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIV.

Türkish: ESEK ELMASI

Common in Westanatolia.

Material used for dying:

Chemical dyestuffs:
Gerbsäuren, Ellagsäure.

Colors dyed:

COTINUS COGGYGRIA SCOP.

Türkish: BOYACI SUMAGI, SARI BOYA AGACI

Common ägäisarea, Blacksea area.

Material used for dying:
leafs

Chemical dyestuffs:
DFisetin, Fustin, Sulfuretin and Gerbstoffe.

Colors dyed:

INULA VISCOSA (L.)

Türkish: ANDIZOTU

Common ägäisarea.

Material used for dying:
The whole plant

Chemical dyestuffs:
Quercetin

Colors dyed:

MADDER - RUBIA TINCTORUM L.

Türkish: KIRMIZI KÖK, KÖKBOYA, BOYALIK

Grows in South and Southeastern Europe, around the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Kaukusus, China, Japan, North and South America.

Material used for dying:
the at leasttwoyears old roots, dried.

Chemical dyestuffs:
23 different anthraquinones and 6 glycosides

The most important dystuffs:
alizarin, purpurin, pseudopurpurin, rubiadin, munjistin

 

Colors dyed:
rose to brown-reds on an alum mordant, depending on the temperature of the dye bath and the hardness of the water; shades of violet on a mordant of iron salts in a cold dying process and subsequent treatment in a Suspension of wood ash

RHAMNUS PETIOLARIS L.

Türkish: CEHRI

Common in Centralanatolia in heghts of 1000 - 3000 meters.

Material used for dying:
crude, green fruits

Chemical dyestuffs:
Rhamnetin, Emodin, Quercetin, Rhamnacin, Kämpferol

Colors dyed:
Intensive Yellow

DYER'S WEED OR WELD - RESEDA LUTEOLA L.

Türkish: MUHABBET ÇIÇEGI

Grows in Central and Southern Europe, originallyonly around the Mediterranean and Western Asia. In 1985 in the region of Tkat, Corum and Sivas, enormous areas of wild Reseda were seen.

Material used for dying:
the whole plant.

Chemical dyestuffs:
luteolin, abigenin, isorhamnetin, kampferol

Colors dyed:
brilliant yellows on an alum mordant that are very fast.

Dyer's weed is one of the most important sources for yellow dyeson Anatolian carpetsand flatweaves

TURPENTINETREE - PISTACIA PALAESTINA L.

Türkish: SAKIZ, MINEÇ

Grows in Western, Central and Northwestern Anatolia.

Material used for dying:
Leaves and young shoots

Chemical dyestuffs:
quercetin, tannin

Colors dyed:
Light yellow on an alum mordant

WALNUTTREE - JUGLANS REGIA L.

Türkish: CEVIZ AGAÇ

Grows in Southwestern, Central and East Asia, Southern Europe, the Balkan, Turkey and North Africa

Material used for dying:
the walnut leaves and the green, unripe husks of the nuts

Chemical dyestuffs:
Quercetin, Tannin

Colors dyed:
shades of brown

SURGE - EUPHORBIA BIGLANDULOSA L.

Türkish: SÜTLEGEN

Grows in Western and Southern Anatolia.

Material used for dying:
Die ganze oberirdische Pflanze

Chemical dyestuffs:
Quercetin, Kämpferol

Colors dyed:
pale, color-fast yellows

From personal investigation, Euphorbia was still known by dyers in 1975 in the area of Dazkiri, but it was longer being used, as the dyers feared the caustic effects of the plant's sap.

THREE-LEAFED SAGE - SALVIA TRILOBA L.

TURKISH: ADACAYI
Grows in Greece, Spain, Asia Minor, Crete
Material used fordying: leaves and stems
Chemical dyestuffs: luteolin, salvigenin
Colors dyed: subdued yellows

INULA VISCOSE L

TURKISH: ANDIZOTU
Grows around the Mediterranean
Material used for dying: the whole plant
Chemical dyestuffs: quercetin
Colors dyed: golden yellow on an alum mordant

SCOTCH HEATHER - CALLUNA VULGARIS (L.) -
ERICA ARBOREA L

TURKISH: PIREN
Grows throughout almost all of Europe and Western Anatolia
Material used for dying: shoots, twigs, leaves and flowers when blooming
Chemical dyestuffs: quercetin, myricetin, leukodelphinidin, arbutin
Colors dyed: on an alum mordant, yellow to brownish yellow tones

ST.-JOHN'S-WORT- HYPERICUM EMPETRIFOLIUM L. -

TURKISH: SARI PIREN
Grows in Western and Southwestern Anatolia
Material used for dying: The whole of the above-ground plant when in bloom
Chemical dyestuffs: quercetin, hypericin, anthraquinones, tannins
Colors dyed: on an alum mordant, yellows; on a mordant of iron salts; brown and black tones

COCHENEAL - DACTYLOPIUS COCCUS COSTA

TURKISH: KOKINELLA, KOJNIL, BÖCEK BOYA
Indigenous to Central America, later raised on the Canary Islands and in Spain
Chemical dyestuffs: carminic acid from the dried female scale insect
Colors dyed: carmine and scarlet red tones on an alum mordant and the addition of cream of tartar and zinc salts; shades of violet on silkusing an alum mordant and subsequent treatment with iron salts and wood ash

INDIGO SHRUB - INDIGOFERA TINCTORIA L.

TURKISH: CIVIT FIDANI

Grows in tropical Africa, India, China, cultivated in Brazil and El Salvador
Material used for dying: leaves (0.5% indicant) and stems (0.2% indican) of the indigo bush. From these, through fermentation indican transforms to the blue dyestuff indigo. Chemical dyestuffs: indigo, indirubin
Method of dying and colors: Natural indigo must first be transformed to a water-soluble, yellow leuco base, a reduction process, previously done using a urine vat, now using ammonium/sodium-dithionite. This is a considerable hazard to the health of the dyer and a seriously contaminates the environment. A method developed by Michael Bischof using dyer's woad allows a significant reduction of the concentration of the sodium-dithionite Solution. With the method described, vat dying with synthetic indigo can also be done. This contains 98% indigo and is - superficial - can hardly be distinguished from natural indigo. With natural and synthetic indigo, the broadest ränge of blue tones can be achieved. In combination with madder red, one can produce attractive black hues.

INDIGO CARMINE - INDIGO SULPHONIC ACID

Indigo sulphonic acid was synthesized by Barth in 1740 in Grossenhain (Saxony) from indigo and sulphuric acid. One uses the diluted sulphonic acid directly for dying. This process was widely used in Anatolia, but unfortu-nately the dye fades readily when washed or exposed to light.

DYER'S GREENWOOD - GENISTA TINCTORAI L.

TURKISH: KATIR TIRNAGI
Grows in England, Central and Southern Europe, around the Black Sea and Marmara Sea, Northeastern Anatolia.
(In 1983, large areas of wild Genista could still be found along the Aras River.) Material used fordying: lhe flowers, leaves and thin stem during the height of flowering.
Chemical dyestuffs: luteolin, genistein, genistin
Colors dyed: yellow tones